Showing posts with label Modern Times. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Modern Times. Show all posts

Monday, August 1, 2016

Farewell, Gloria DeHaven

Actress and singer Gloria DeHaven passed away on Saturday at the age of 91. Her first ever film role was portraying one of the Gamine's sisters in Modern Times, a film for which her father, Carter DeHaven, served as assistant director. 

Gloria is on the right.

In this 1989 interview, Gloria remembers "handsome" Charlie Chaplin ("you just don't know how great-looking [he] was")--going to his house with her father, and how she got the role in Modern Times. This part of the interview starts around the 2:00 mark.




Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Chaplin wins plagiarism suit, November 1939

Given all the headlines about plagiarism today, I thought this was a timely story. In 1939, Chaplin won a federal suit brought against him by attorney Michael Kustoff, who claimed Chaplin had lifted the plot of Modern Times from his autobiography, Against Gray Walls.

Chaplin at the federal building following his victory in court.

Kustoff served as his own attorney and questioned Chaplin on the witness stand. Read the full story, plus some of the testimony, here:


Los Angeles Times, November 19, 1939

Friday, February 12, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Wednesday, February 12th: Charlie and Paulette attend the Hollywood premiere of Modern Times at Grauman's Chinese Theater.


Grauman's Chinese on opening night

After three days of torrential downpours, the skies cleared over Hollywood just in time for the gala premiere of Chaplin's long-awaited new film.
"The red carpet was stretched for famous feet (some are already imprinted in concrete in the forecourt) all the regalia of cameras, flashlights, sun arcs, microphone announcers functioned out front for the benefit of the sidewalk spectators too long deprived of "premeer" glamour. Despite the rainy season, at its height, the boulevard for blocks was jammed with cheering throngs in slickers and under umbrellas." 1 

Cover of Grauman's program

Chaplin, attired in tails, looked "radiant," his "gray hair sparkling in the spotlight," while Paulette Goddard, at the opening of her first major film, "caused gasps of admiration with her gown done entirely in bands of white fringe over heavy white crepe and the latest thing in white fox capes." 2



Unprecedented for him, Chaplin gave a short speech before the film was shown. On stage, he nervously touched the microphone and said: "This thing confuses me." He then introduced Paulette and asked for the then-newcomer "your sympathetic interest." Chaplin admitted to the audience that he was more nervous than ever in his career and while he felt Modern Times was his best picture, he never knew what the public would say. Nevertheless, he felt he had reached a "milestone."


Chaplin then explained that he was encouraged to attend the premiere and make an uncharacteristic speech by Greek theater owner Charles Skouras who had told him that for the $5.50 admission price he should give the people what they want and make a personal appearance. He then spoke with a Greek accent and impersonated Skouras talking to him. Paulette climaxed the story by stepping into the footlights and announcing "It's all Greek to me."4

A slew of celebrities attended the opening, including Chaplin's guests: Constance Collier, King Vidor, and his girlfriend, Betty Hill.

L-R: Constance Collier, Paulette, her mother Alta, CC
Also in attendance were: Norma Shearer and Irving Thalberg, Marlene Dietrich, Ruby Keeler and Al Jolson, Ernst Lubitsch, Douglas Fairbanks & Mary Pickford (though not together), Lupe Velez, Bette Davis, Warren William, Harold Lloyd, Amelia Earhart, Cecil B. DeMille, and Groucho Marx, who humorously remarked: "I came here to see another comedian who doesn't talk."5

Douglas Fairbanks


1Mayme Ober Peak, Boston Globe, Feb. 20, 1936
2Washington Post, Feb. 17, 1936; Los Angeles Times, Feb. 16th, 1936
3Washington Post, Feb. 17, 1936; Boston Globe, February 20, 1936
4Motion Picture Daily, February 14, 1936
5Washington Post, Feb. 17, 1936

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For past installments of my "Day By Day: 1936" series, where I document one year of Chaplin's life, click here. Coming soon, Charlie and Paulette embark on their 4-month trip to the Far East.

Friday, February 5, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Wednesday, February 5th: Modern Times premiered at the Rivoli in New York City.


  • "Charles Chaplin, having come after many delays and reconsiderations to final agreement with himself to regard the picture as completed, bowed motion picture-wise to the world Wednesday night for the first time in five years, in 'Modern Times,' at New York's Rivoli theatre on Broadway, on the occasion of the premiere of his $2,000,000 comedy of slapstick and pantomime. He charged the first-nighters $5.50 [$94 in today's money]." (Motion Picture Herald, Feb. 8th, 1936)
  • "A greater contingent of film notables appeared to have attended than had ever participated in the opening celebration of a motion picture. The guest list included the names of Will H. Hays, Herbert Bayard Swope, Douglas Fairbanks, junior and senior, John Edward Otterson, Adolph Zukor, Nicholas M. Schenck, Sidney R. Kent, Harry M. Warner, Major Albert Warner, Lee Shubert, Alexander Woollcott, Nathan Burkan, Myron Schenck, Sam Katz, Harry M. Goetz, Arthur W. Kelly, Harry D. Buckley, Lillian Hellman, Edward G. Robinson, Tilly Losch, Gloria Swanson, Evelyn Laye, Corinne Griffith, Ginger Rogers, Eddie Cantor and his Parkyakarkus, and Burns and Allen." (Motion Picture Herald, Feb. 8th, 1936)

Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.
Edward G. Robinson

  • "For the first time, Charles Chaplin opened his mouth and made noises on the screen tonight and crowds of tailcoated men and ermine wrapped women were there for the startling event." (Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "Some openings are different. Last night's start of Charlie Chaplin's 'Modern Times' was one of these. The streets were too slippery for the mounted police to get out, and the walking cops couldn't get toe holds to push the crowds back." (Motion Picture Daily, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "In the glare of the lights on Broadway outside thousands pressed to stare at celebrities, seek their autographs, and even feel the texture of the evening gowns as the notables were escorted from their machines into the foyer." (Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "That short 30 or 40 feet from the center of Broadway to the Rivoli's doors was an adventure for some of Park Avenue's ermine-clad women and high-hatted men. Some made it by elbowing; some dashed through narrow lanes opened by the police. Marcel waves became wind-blown bobs in no time at all."  (Motion Picture Daily, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "The demonstration reached a climax shortly before the showing of the picture and a riot call was sent to police headquarters. Earlier, women had been knocked down and policemen swept brusquely aside as autograph seekers pushed into the theater lobby. The entrance to the theater lobby was blocked so completely that the police found it necessary to join hands and force open a narrow path to the street so that men and women with tickets could enter the theater without danger of injury." (New York Times, Feb. 6th, 1936)


  • "Some of the notables were badly disarrayed when they gained their $5.50 seats." (Chicago Daily Tribune, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "While more than twenty-five policemen held back the crowds that insistently closed in on arriving first-night celebrities, Mr. Chaplin was reported to be spending a quiet evening 3,000 miles away on the Pacific Coast." (New York Times, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "Inside the lobby a microphone had been set up and an announcer related a round-by-round account of the struggle between the police and the crowd. Many of the celebrities were invited to say a few words of greeting in a broadcast over WNEW." (New York Times, Feb. 6th, 1936)
  • "The Rivoli's rather sophisticated first-night audience found the most fun in a mechanical sequence with Mr. Chaplin suffering at the ministrations of a feeding machine. The pie throwing that used to be done by hand now is presented better and faster by a machine." (Motion Picture Herald, Feb. 8th, 1936)

Chaplin Studio production report, Feb. 5th, 1936.

Stay tuned for the next installment of my "Day By Day: 1936" series, where I document one year of Chaplin's life. Want to know what's been going on so far? Click here.

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Sunday, February 2nd: On this day in 1936, the New York Times was abuzz with the upcoming world premiere of Modern Times, which was scheduled to take place in just three days. The illustration below accompanied an article entitled "Enter Charles Chaplin, Tardily" which detailed what New Yorkers could expect on opening night:
"United Artists promises to transform night into day around the vicinity of Forty-ninth Street with powerful flood lights. And the police department, which somehow never misses these affairs, will be on hand to keep the crowds from swarming into the street and snarling traffic."

The article explained that Chaplin would not attend the premiere because he didn't want to battle the New York crowds and be "stared and pointed at as though I were a freak. I will be much happier staying in Hollywood waiting for the news of the film's success or failure. I think and hope it will be the former."1

"Though a rarely interviewed man," the piece went on, "Mr. Chaplin divulged how the idea and title of his film originated.
'I was riding in my car one day and saw a mass of people coming out of a factory, punching time-clocks, and was overwhelmed with the knowledge that the theme note of modern times is mass production, I wondered what would happen to the progress of the mechanical age if one person decided to act like a bull in a china shop--for instance to say 'nuts' to a red light and drive on--or scream at a concert that was boring. I decided it would make a good story to take a little man and make him thumb his nose at all recognized rules and conventions.'"2
Ad from The New York Times, Feb. 2nd, 1936

1The article quotes from Sheilah Graham's interview Chaplin that was published in the Los Angeles Times on 1/27/1936, and featured in my "Day By Day" series here
2"Enter Charles Chaplin, Tardily," New York Times, February 2nd, 1936

Stay tuned for the next installment of my "Day By Day: 1936" series, where I document one year of Chaplin's life. Want to know what's been going on so far? Click here.

Monday, February 1, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Saturday, February 1st: Studio production report: "C.C. did not come to studio. Dub foreign version UA studio 3:50 to 4:30 PM." (initialed by Catherine Hunter). I assume the dubbing was for the few speaking parts in the film, i.e. the factory president, the salesman on the phonograph record, etc.

www.charliechaplinarchive.org

Meanwhile, people on both coasts were gearing up for the premiere of Chaplin's first film in five years.

New York Times, Feb. 1, 1936
Watch "Mickey's Polo Team" here
 (CC comes in around the 1:52 mark, after Harpo)

Santa Ana Register, Feb. 1, 1936

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Feb. 1, 1936

Motion Picture Daily, Feb. 1, 1936

Motion Picture Daily

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Monday, January 27th: In this interview with Sheilah Graham, published 80-years ago today in the Los Angeles Times, Chaplin reveals that his next film will be a talkie, that he is tired of being the "forgotten man of the movies," and why he would "rather not go" to the upcoming New York premiere of Modern Times on February 5th (his reasons are interesting).

Sadly, Ms. Graham reveals to her readers the entire plot of the Modern Times, including the ending.


Los Angeles Times, January 27, 1936


Monday, January 25, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Saturday, January 25th: A colorized photo of Chaplin (with brown eyes!) appeared on the cover of the British fan magazine, Picturegoer.


Featured inside was a two-page spread on Modern Times, Chaplin's "eagerly awaited production." (I'm sorry some of the captions are blurry)


Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Monday, January 13th, 1936: Chaplin Studio Manager, Alfred Reeves, informs Joseph Breen, head of the production code office, that Chaplin had made the eliminations to Modern Times that his office had requested and that they were awaiting their certificate of approval.


The certificate arrived later that day:


The requested eliminations can be seen in my Day By Day post from one week ago. In an interview in March 1936, Chaplin said he regretted having to make the changes:
"We had to take out a number of shots we made in the department store using wax models of women. Then in the jail sequence we had to cut entirely a gag that I thought was pretty good. In this sequence, as I am being led to my cell, the officer who has me in charge has another prisoner in tow. This other fellow walks with a mincing feminine step (here Chaplin acted the part of the other prisoner). The big laugh was supposed to come when the officer starts to put this fellow in the same cell with myself." (Atlanta Constitution, March 22, 1936). 
The fellow with the "mincing feminine step" is still in the final film if you watch closely the scene where the prisoners are being led in and out of the cafeteria. There is one man (below, 4th from the front, with his hand on his hip) who walks in a very effeminate manner.



Monday, January 13th: On the same day, Chaplin along with Irving S. Cobb sponsored a lecture by poet John Masefield at the Philharmonic Auditorium in Los Angeles. In My Autobiography, Chaplin described a visit by Masefield to his studio several years earlier:
John Masefield visited the studio; he was a tall, handsome, gentle man, kindly and understanding. But for some reason these qualities made me extremely shy. Fortunately I had just read The Widow in the Bye Street which I admired, so I was not entirely mum and quoted some of my favourite lines from it: 
There was a group outside the prison gate,
Waiting to hear them ring the passing bell,
Waiting as empty people always wait
For the strong toxic of another's hell.

Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Day By Day: 1936

Sunday, January 5th: Chaplin held a preview of Modern Times at the Alexander Theater in Glendale.

Chaplin Studios production report from January 6th. ©Roy Export Co. Est., used with permission.


Monday, January 6th: Modern Times was delivered to Joseph Breen, head of the production code office, who viewed the film that day and immediately responded with a letter outlining six sequences he'd like changed, including one that showed a closeup of the udders of a cow!

Letter from Joseph Breen to Chaplin Studio manager, Alfred Reeves.
©Roy Export Co. Est, used with permission.

The "pansy gag" takes place in the jail and involves an effeminate man who enters a cell where Charlie is sitting alone. Alarmed, Charlie demands to be moved, only to end up in a cell with a brutish man doing needlepoint (the latter scene remains in the film).

The word "dope" is changed to "nose powder."

Friday, November 13, 2015

Recording session for MODERN TIMES, November 1935

 At right, Chaplin shakes hands with conductor Alfred Newman. 

Eighty-years ago this month, Chaplin recorded the music for Modern Times, his final silent film. The sessions were held on a soundstage at the United Artists Studios, with a 65-piece orchestra conducted by Alfred Newman.1 Chaplin had composed the music himself, with the help of arrangers David Raksin and Edward Powell, including the "love theme" which would become one of his most famous melodies, better known as the pop standard "Smile."2

Below is Hollywood reporter Sidney Skolsky's eyewitness account of one of the recording sessions:
Chaplin sits in a camp chair on a large recording set at the United Artists studio, supervising the scoring. His hair is gray. He has a stubble gray beard. He wears black patent leather shoes with white suede tops, and his right arm is carried in a sling.3 A blue silk muffler serves as a sling. Chaplin broke his thumb in the door of his auto. 
Al Newman stands on a small platform, waving a baton at 65 musicians. David Raksin, who made the music arrangements for Chaplin, is also present to supervise. 
There is a screen hanging in midair in back of the orchestra. The part of Modern Times being scored will be shown on the screen. Chaplin is chewing gum in time with the orchestra. Only a few of Chaplin's personal friends among the magazine writers and several visitors from the Soviet cinema have seen sections of the picture. No newspaperman has seen a flash of it. I walk on the set, stand and watch. Soon Chaplin sees me. He grins a broad "Hello" and then says it. I approach him. "I'd like to watch you work. May I?" Chaplin has always been congenial to me. "Stay around," he answers, "but don't tell too much." 
The orchestra starts rehearsing the music for the factory sequence in which Chaplin revolts against being a slave of the machinery. He throws the place into confusion and does a wild dance. The music is as difficult as the scene. Every note must be timed exactly with the film, and the music is not loud and brazen as expected of factory sounds. The orchestra rehearses these few bars again...again...again. An hour later, they're still doing these few bars. The orchestra stops playing. The men leave their chairs. There's time out for five minutes, like a football team. It is strenuous work. The musicians work only three, four hours at the most, at a stretch. Then they have an hour for relaxation. Yesterday, they worked from 9 in the morning until 4 o'clock the next morning, and about half a reel was completely scored. It costs Chaplin on the average of $1,000 an hour to score this flicker. 
L-R: Charles Dunworth (asst. to Alfred Newman), Alfred Newman (conductor), CC, David Raksin (arranger),
 Paul Neal (recording engineer), and Edward Powell (arranger). 
Now, after several hours of rehearsing, Al Newman and Chaplin agree they will try to record this scene. The signal is given. The picture is ready to be flashed on the screen. The man in the sound booth is ready to pick up the music and capture  it. I am invited to sit in the sound booth with Paul Neal, for here I can see the picture and hear the music as it is recorded. He is the only man on the set who sees and hears the flicker as if it were being shown in a theater. Chaplin, with the baggy trousers, the big shoes and black hair, is on the screen. The Chaplin with neat clothes and gray hair sits looking at him. 
The flicker is on. Chaplin is performing. The first impression is very strange. I see Chaplin moving, his mouth opens--but no sounds, no words are heard. For a moment I believe something is wrong. Then I remember it is a silent flicker. The orchestra plays the same few bars again and again, and the picture is started over and over. By now I am becoming accustomed to silent pictures.4 Chaplin watches the picture and listens to the music. He jumps up to stop the music. He okays a take. He asks Newman or Raksin or Neal how it sounded. 
It is really interesting to watch Chaplin watch Chaplin. He never laughs at him, but is always intent. Chaplin when talking about the Chaplin on the screen says, "The little feller does that..." or "He doesn't do that..." But he never calls the Chaplin on the screen "I." To him the Chaplin on the screen is a character. 
--Sidney Skolsky, "Chaplin's Modern Times," Washington Post, November 27, 1935

Chaplin is seated at right near the conductor's podium.

Photos by Max Munn Autrey

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1Alfred Newman would eventually walk out on the film after a blow up with Chaplin. According to David Raksin: "They were operating on ragged nerves, and after one bad take Charlie had accused the players of "dogging it"--lying down on the job. At this, Newman, who at the best of times had a hair-trigger temper, had broken his baton and stalked off the stage, and was now refusing to work with Chaplin." ("Life with Charlie," 1983) Newman never returned. Arranger Edward Powell took over as conductor for the remainder of the sessions.
2Lyrics were added to the melody in 1954 by John Turner and Geoffrey Parsons.
3You can see the sling on Chaplin in the last photo if you look closely. He is also wearing it in this photo taken at a party for H.G. Wells around the same time.
4By 1935, talkies had been around for nearly a decade and silent films were a thing of the past.

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Contract signing for the presentation of MODERN TIMES at the Tivoli in London, October 1935

At left is Arthur Jarrett, booking manager for the Gaumont-British picture corp. The signing appears to be taking place in the screening room of the Chaplin Studios.  Modern Times opened at the Tivoli on February 11th, 1936. (Note that Charlie still has a patch of hair dye in the front.)


Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Tony Bennett on Chaplin & Chaplin on The Best Years Of Our Lives

At 10:30 tonight on TCM, guest programmer Tony Bennett will introduce Modern Times, starring one of his heroes, Charlie Chaplin. In his autobiography, Bennett wrote that Chaplin "never made a movie without love, and as a result, each of his films is a masterpiece." Because of his admiration for Chaplin, he was touched by a gift he received from him in the early 1970s:
One day a package arrived in the mail for me. I opened it to find a canister that held an original copy of the last ten minutes of Modern Times, the film in which the song "Smile" (composed by Chaplin) first appeared. Chaplin had heard my recorded version, and out of appreciation sent me this treasured gift. Imagine that. 1


Another of Mr. Bennett's picks tonight is William Wyler's 1946 post-World War II classic The Best Years Of Our Lives, a film Chaplin once called "the most significant picture to come out of Hollywood in years--significant not only for what the film itself accomplishes but also for the encouragement the film's success will give to other producers [to make daring and out-of-the-ordinary films]. 2

Below is a humorous anecdote told by German philosopher Theodor Adorno involving himself, Chaplin, and one of the stars of the film, Harold Russell:
Perhaps I may justify my speaking about [Chaplin] by recounting a certain privilege which I was granted, entirely without having earned it. He once imitated me, and surely I am one of the few intellectuals to whom this happened and to be able to account for it when it happened. Together with many others we were invited to a villa in Malibu, on the coast outside of Los Angeles. While Chaplin stood next to me, one of the guests was taking his leave early. Unlike Chaplin, I extended my hand to him a bit absent-mindedly, and, almost instantly, started violently back. The man was one of the lead actors from The Best Years of Our Lives, a film famous shortly after the war; he lost a hand during the war, and in its place bore practicable claws made of iron. When I shook his right hand and felt it return the pressure, I was extremely startled, but sensed immediately that I could not reveal my shock to the injured man at any price. In a split second I transformed my frightened expression into an obliging grimace that must have been far ghastlier. The actor had hardly moved away when Chaplin was already playing the scene back. 3
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1Tony Bennett,  Life Is a Gift, 2014
2Thomas Pryor, "Trail's End For The Tramp," New York Times, April 13, 1947
3Theodor Adorno, "Chaplin Times Two," reprinted in The Essential Chaplin, 2006

Saturday, November 15, 2014

Random Excerpt

Journalist Sara Hamilton describes a day on the Chaplin lot during the filming of Modern Times:
A Chaplin picture conference is something that defies description. When the picture situations (they are never referred to as gags on the Chaplin lot) have been perfected in the mind of Chaplin--a long slow process that requires from two to four years--Della [Steele] and Henry [Bergman] are then summoned to a conference in Charlie's bungalow.
About the table they gather--and the situations are acted out one after the other. Charlie begins by taking his own role as the little tramp, closely watching their reactions to his every move. Henry, who weighs the better part of a ton, is then called upon to play Chaplin's role; Della takes Miss [Paulette] Goddard's role of the little street waif; Charlie is the factory foreman. Then swiftly they change parts again. Della is Charlie, the tramp; Henry is a policeman and Chaplin becomes the street waif. 
Henry Bergman and Della Steele, c.1935. ©Roy Export S.A.S.
It was his untiring striving for perfection in performance and his gentle patience with the clumsiest performer that impressed a titled visitor (and visitors are rare) at the Chaplin lot recently.  Rehearsals began at ten that morning with extras and bit players ready and waiting. Then began one of the strangest phenomena every witnessed. Chaplin directing his own picture. In explaining the action to the owner of the delicatessen shop, Charlie became the character. In some manner he took on enormous proportions, his face rounded, his hands grew massive and clumsy as the tramp faded in the background. 
In a flash he became the policeman, growing in stature before the eyes as he strutted, stormed and threatened. Then on to Miss Goddard's role. Prone on the sidewalk he wept, cried out in childish despair, "I didn't, please, please, I didn't steal the ham. Oh please, I didn't, Mister. Honest, I didn't." The voice, not Chaplin's, but the voice of the frightened waif--wept and cried and pleaded from the sidewalk. Now, in a flash, he was an extra tramp, weaving his gentle way in perfect rhythm in and out among the characters.  
Directing Paulette Goddard. ©Roy Export S.A.S.
From ten till four it went on without a moment's pause. And then, with the perspiration dripping down his face, he humbly thanked them all and with an apology for having carried them past the lunch hour, staggered off, tired and weary, to his little bungalow, his cane flipping a feeble staccato as he went. 
There is little boisterousness around the Chaplin studio. The Chaplinites feel that unwarranted noise or crude language might offend "him." "Him" in case you haven't guessed, is the little tramp, the tattered ragamuffin, the gallant little gentleman with his absurdly defiant elegance who picks his teeth with such delightful savoir faire and belches with such charming daintiness. 
To them this pathetic little creature who once, long ago, sprang from the forehead of Charles Spencer Chaplin, is a definite personality. He lives, he breathes, he thinks, he walks his troubled way alone. His name to all of them, is just "he."
In the midst of some hilarious bit of tragedy in which "he" finds himself involved on the set, Chaplin will figuratively stand aside and contemplate his little friend with an amused chuckle and a knowing wink that seems to say, "our little friend got himself into a fine pickle that time, didn't he?"
So it was when they showed Charlie the sweater knit by the loving hands of some dear old lady and sent over to the Chaplin studio with a note explaining it was for the little tramp when the wind blew cold. Chaplin's eyes grew misty as he said, "Write and thank her and tell her not to worry. "I'll always take care of 'him.'"
--Sara Hamilton, "The New Charlie Chaplin," Baltimore Sun, September 1, 1935 

Monday, December 9, 2013

Chaplin with his musical collaborators for Modern Times, 1935

L-R: Charles Dunworth (asst. to Alfred Newman), Alfred Newman (conductor, uncle of Randy Newman), CC, David Raksin (arranger), Paul Neal (recording engineer), and Edward Powell (arranger). Photo by Max Munn Autrey.

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Paulette Goddard and the crew of Modern Times

Front row: Paulette (far left), asst. director, Carter De Haven (middle), continuity secretary, Della Steele (far right).
Back row: cameramen Ira Morgan (second from left), Rollie Totheroh (behind camera) and Mark Marlatt (second from right)

Thursday, November 14, 2013